Thursday, March 26, 2020

101 Time Management Strategies For Marketers - CoSchedule

101 Time Management Strategies For Marketers As content marketers and bloggers, we all feel like we could use some better time management strategies from time to time. In fact, one of the biggest takeaways we learned from our 2016 Better Marketer Survey  is that our readers are short on time. As we dug deeper into the data, it wasn’t hard to see why. Most of our audience is working alone or with a small team, and usually without all the resources required to create all the content they need. The majority of respondents are also fairly new to content marketing and blogging, with 63% reporting they have two years of experience or less. Put that all together, and it sounds like a recipe for burnout. If you’re feeling overwhelmed, however, there are ways you can get in control to tilt the odds for success back into your favor. By optimizing your workflow, leveraging the right tools, and learning to focus on the tasks where you can make the most impact, you can make your life as a content marketer less stressful and more satisfying while increasing your productivity. Here are 101 marketing time management strategies to help you better manage your time, work more efficiently, and get back in control of your content. Table Of Contents Content Strategy Ideation Organization And Project Management Team Communication Content Writing Graphic Design Search Engine Optimization Social Media Email Content Calendar Management Analytics And Reporting General Productivity 3 Content Strategy Time-Saving Tips 1. Think MVP (Minimal Viable Product) When planning your content strategy with limited time, ask â€Å"what is the minimum amount of resources and effort each project will take to be successful?† This isn’t the same as cutting corners, however. Think of this process as a way to mentally cut your content down to what’s most essential, and leave anything that isn’t critical to your success on the cutting room floor. 2. Refresh And Republish Instead of creating completely fresh content every time you sit down to write a post, consider identifying older content you can potentially update and refresh. To do this, use Google Analytics to find your top performing posts. Then, search the primary keyword for each post and see what content is currently ranking on the first page of Google. If those posts have newer or more relevant content than your own post, double down on revising your posts to be even better than theirs. Then, republish it as a new post, or an updated version of the original. This strategy can help you save time by leveraging what you already have, rather than having to come up with something new from scratch. Plus, it can also be a good way to get more mileage out of posts you know already resonate with your audience. Recommended Reading:  How To Breathe New Life Into Old Blog Posts 3. Create A Quick Reference List Of Content Curation Sources Identify influential sources in your niche you can lean on for content curation and put them into a list you can refer back to later. That way, you won’t have to hunt for sources later. Back To Table Of Contents 15 Content Ideation Time Management Strategies 4. Use Google Trends Use Google Trends  to quickly gauge searcher interest in a given topic. It’s a free and easy-to-use tool that shows how frequently a given topic is getting searched, which is extremely helpful for validating the worth of your content ideas. 5. Find Top-Performing Content Fast With BuzzSumo If you’re ready to move up to a paid tool, BuzzSumo  is a handy tool for surfacing the top performing content on a given topic. It can help you not only determine what’s popular, but also show you what kind of competition you’re up against. 6. Don't Forget About Google's Keyword Planner While it’s primarily a PPC tool, Google’s own Keyword Planner  needs to be mentioned here as well. It’s useful for both generating keyword ideas as well as estimating the potential search traffic they could deliver to your post. 7. Leverage Your Competition Manually review the most recent posts from your top competitors blogs and websites. Look at what they’re doing to get an idea of what topics are hot at the moment. Keep your eyes open for new information that you could add to a post, that no one else has (yet). 8. Try Portent's Content Idea Generator Portent’s Content Idea Generator  is good for at least getting the gears in your head turning on ideas you can use quickly. Hubspot’s Blog Topic Generator  is similar and worth checking out, too. 9. Use Feedly Use Feedly  to quickly keep tabs on recent news and blog posts. It's similar to what Google Reader used to be, pulling the latest posts from different sources you find in one place for easy reading. 10. Take Notes And Keep Them Organized Save time trying to find where you’ve kept all your inspiration filled notes with a tool like Evernote. Alternately, something like Google Keep  or any note taking app can also work well. 11. Set Time Limits On Brainstorming Sessions Brainstorm (with a time limit). Have your team write down as many ideas as they can think of in five minutes. Put them on notecards and then post them on a board. Go through them all and rank each idea a 1 (so-so) to 3 (brilliant). Discard anything that is not a unanimous 3. This process can easily yield dozens of strong ideas in under an hour. Recommended Reading:  4 Simple Brainstorming Techniques That Will Help You Write Killer Content 12. Use A Voice Recorder Or Mobile App To Take Notes On The Go Inspiration can come anywhere and at any time, so make a habit of recording your ideas whenever they pop into your head. Use a voice recorder or note-taking app on your phone, or consider carrying around a notepad in your work bag. 13. Subscribe To E-newsletters In Your Niche Or Industry Subscribe to quality industry email newsletters. Following thought leaders in your niche is a lot easier when you’re getting their latest information sent directly to your inbox. 14. Use Internal Search Terms To Generate Content Ideas Use internal site search analytics  to see what people are looking for on your site or blog. This can be a fast way to identify gaps in your content (if people are looking to you for something you don’t have content for, then you know it’s time to get to work). 15. Use Downtime To Research On Your Phone Turn wasted time into productive time by using your phone to research while waiting in shopping lines, riding public transit, or anywhere else you find yourself waiting (and when and where it's acceptable to use your phone). Smarter #Marketer Tip: Waiting in line at the store? Use that time to research on your phone....16. Audiobooks Are Your Friend Listen to audiobooks related to your professional development on your commute instead of music or the radio. You'll pick up information you can then put to use when you get to the office. 17. Use Google Analytics To  Identify Past Success Use data from Google Analytics to predict success and avoid wasted time on things that won’t work. For example, if you notice that several posts on a given topic aren’t performing well, consider whether the issue is the quality of your content, or the possibility that the topic simply doesn’t have an audience. If you know certain topics resonate with your readers and you have the data to prove it create more content like that. 18. Create An Ongoing Idea List Maintain a list of content ideas you can pull from in the future. Keep it in a Google Doc, spreadsheet, or Evernote doc that your entire team can access and edit. Then when it comes time to write a post, you can just pull an idea off the list instead of wasting time wondering what to write about. Back To Table Of Contents 6 Organization And Project Management  Strategies 19. Use A Shared Meeting Calendar Use a shared Google Calendar to make sure everyone on your team has visibility on meeting times, events, out-of-office requests, and so forth. 20. Use Consistent File Names Establish a consistent naming convention for saving files. This can make finding things later much easier. Recommended Reading:  How To Rock A Content Development Process That Will Save You Tons Of Time 21. Take On  Projects In Logical Order Group similar projects together and knock them out all in a row as sprints. For example, list all the steps required to write one blog post. Then, run through them starting at the top. 22. Follow  The 80/20 Principle Also known as the Pareto Principle, the 80/20 principle  is the idea that 80% of your output will come from 20% of your effort. To leverage this for your work, start by eliminating or delegating menial non-essential tasks that don't directly impact results. The more you focus on things that directly affect productivity, you'll get more done with less effort. 23. Be Realistic About What You Can Do Prioritize projects and only take on the ones that are within the scope of your resources and stand a reasonable shot at success. 24. Set Goals For Every Task Set progress goals for every project and stick to them.  They'll keep you focused on your end result and help you build discipline. Back To Table Of Contents 7 Team Communication  Strategies 25.  Use A Messaging App Instead Of Email For inner-office communication, a tool like HipChat  or Slack  can improve efficiency while keeping your email inbox uncluttered. 26. Use Screenshots For Design Edits A picture is worth a thousand words. If you need to suggest design edits, sometimes sending screenshots is the best way to go. Use a tool like Skitch, SnagIt, iAt Home, or Awesome Screenshot  to take screen captures with notes and arrows. 27. Know When To Delegate If someone else can do a task 80% as well as you can, and you don’t have time to do it yourself, consider handing it off to another team member (so long as they do have time). 28. Know When To Ask For Help Ask for help before you’ve wasted too much time trying to figure something out on your own. There’s something to be said for showing initiative and trying to learn things yourself, but if you know that someone on your team already has that knowledge, just ask. You’ll get more done that way. Strategy #28: Save time by asking for help sooner. #ContentMarketing29. Keep Shared Files Easily Accessible Make sure everyone knows where to access files and documents your team will use. This sounds basic, but if you’re using multiple resources to store files, you’d be surprised how easy it is for things to get out of control if your team doesn’t know what goes where. 30. Establish Team Workflows Establish consistent workflows to save time wondering what each person should be doing at each step of a project. To do this: Get your team together to create a list of every step required from each team member to complete the project (be sure you do this before doing any of the actual work itself). Put those steps in order. Identify who will be responsible for each piece. Have each person notify the next team member when it's ready to hand off. By the time you're done, you'll have an effective workflow template you can follow on similar projects in the future, refining the process as you discover what works and what doesn't. 31. Set Up Regular Times To Check In Schedule regular touch-point meetings and stick to them. This removes excuses for not having time to communicate, or for team members not sharing vital information. Back To Table Of Contents 17 Content Writing Productivity Strategies 32. Use Outlines Create an outline  for every blog post. Knowing the structure of your post will help you write it quicker and create more focused content. 33. If You're Overwhelmed, Do Better At Doing Less Think less is more. If you’re feeling overwhelmed trying to create too many posts, try putting more effort into fewer posts. Sometimes having greater focus on fewer things can help rein in some of that stress. Recommended Reading:  How To Blog With As Little As Possible 34.  Avoid Pursuing Perfection Don’t cut corners on quality, but do avoid chasing perfection. There will always be things you want to change, so focus on shipping and know when to call your work finished. 35. Edit Your Own Work First Edit your own work first before passing anything off to a proofreader or copy editor. It’ll help save them time and better endear you to staying on their good side. 36. Write Big Posts One Piece At A Time Break down long-form pieces into smaller chunks and work on one section at a time. This can help you work faster by focusing on smaller portions of the overall post, instead of getting overwhelmed by the full scope of your idea. 37. Set Deadlines Deadlines. Set them  and meet them. Don’t let your work stretch to fill an excessive amount of time. 38. Hire Help Don’t have time to do everything yourself? Consider hiring freelance help if you can. 101 tips to save time with #blogging and #contentmarketing (spoiler alert: use ).39. Turn Coworkers Into Blog Contributors Leverage internal experts within your organization. If you’re working in-house with a business, get buy-in from other team members with unique expertise who may be able to help contribute blog posts. 40. Schedule Writing Work Blocks Block off focused and uninterrupted time to write. Distraction-free word processors like FocusWriter  or WriteBox  can be useful if you really want to get serious about eliminating distractions. This way, you can get more writing done quickly without getting sidetracked. 41. Forget Word Counts Don’t waste time worrying about hitting specified word counts (unless you’re working with an editor or manager who is adamant about a specific word count). The right length for your post is however long it takes to write a full and comprehensive piece of content on your topic. Usually, that’s going to mean a substantial length (1,500+ words), but not always. 42. Consider User-Generated Content Consider accepting unsolicited reader submissions or create a section where readers can write their own blog posts on your blog (this will not necessarily work nor be appropriate for every blog). Moz’s YouMoz Blog  is a great example of how to do this well. 43. Solicit Guest Bloggers Having some extra help from reputable contributors can make it much easier to get authoritative content on your blog with less effort from your own team. 44. Use Hemingway Want to know if your writing sucks? The Hemingway app  will let you know, and help you identify ways you can make your writing clearer. It’s available for both Mac and PC, and is worth its $10 price tag, especially if you don’t have an actual copy editor or proofreader. 45. Use Use a tool like to schedule your blog publishing and associated social media content ahead of time. Is this a shameless plug? Absolutely, but there's a reason why we build our product. (If you haven't tried it yet, get your 14-day free trial here.) 46. Write Headlines With The  Headline Analyzer Use the  Headline Analyzer  to quickly write and score headlines. This makes it easy to write lots of headlines fast and choose the best option. 47. Use The Skyscraper Technique Use the skyscraper technique  to quickly identify top performing competitor content you can improve on. This simply involves looking at the top-ranking content on your given topic or keyword, identifying what those posts are missing, and then making sure your own content fills those gaps. That could mean including information those other posts are missing, or different types of content they lack (for example, embedded videos or infographics). 48. Repurpose, Repurpose, Repurpose Repurpose content from your blog posts for other content. Borrow blog post copy for your email newsletter. Turn several related blog posts into an ebook. These are just a couple ideas, but if you need more inspiration, here's over 50 ideas for repurposing content. Back To Table Of Contents 5  Graphic Design  Time Management  Strategies 49. No Designer?  No Problem. Don’t have access to Photoshop? Or, does your team lack a dedicated graphic designer? In either case, tools like Canva, Infogr.am, and Piktochart make it easy to create high-quality images and infographics you can use for your content. While the above tools are definitely useful, sometimes you really need dedicated design and image manipulation software to get the job done right. If cost is the only thing stopping you from investing in Photoshop, consider GIMP. It’s a free and open-source alternative to Photoshop that, while lacking certain features, still packs an incredible amount of power. This isn't necessarily a time-saving tool, per se, but if you've been putting off creating graphics because you don't have budget for the right tool, now is the time to stop wasting time with excuses and start getting down to work (the payoffs for having quality graphics are worth it in the long run). 50. Reuse Graphics Don’t forget that one graphic can potentially be used multiple places. For example, try remaking blog header graphics in multiple sizes for email newsletters and social media posts.  If you have certain graphic elements you use frequently, consider storing them all in one place where they can easily be accessed. 51. Use Keyboard Shortcuts Learn Photoshop keyboard shortcuts. The time you spend internalizing them into your workflow will save you tons of time in the long run. 52. Use Image Templates Create your own Photoshop templates for common image sizes and formats you know you’ll be using often, or find downloadable templates online (a quick Google search should yield plenty of options). 53. Give Your Designer Direction  Before They Start Working If you're a writer or blogger working with a graphic designer, give them an idea of what you want for graphics before they get started. This can help avoid confusion and having to redo images when the results don't match expectations. For graphic designers, this same advice applies in reverse. Ask your writer what they want up front. Even if they can't quite communicate exactly what they're looking for, opening up the discussion early in the collaborative process can be an immense time saver later on. Back To Table Of Contents 4 Search Engine Optimization Time Management  Strategies 54. Use Yoast If you’re using WordPress, use the Yoast plugin  to quickly check your on-page SEO and make sure your title tags and meta descriptions are well written. 55. Get An SEO Platform If you have a budget, use a dedicated SEO software platform to manage your search engine optimization efforts. Moz  and Raven Tools  are both affordably priced and fully featured options that will cover most of your bases. Backlink tools like Majestic  and Ahrefs  are well worth a look as well. The benefits to using these services are that they keep your data stored in one place and make performing SEO tasks much quicker, easier, and more effective. 56. Leverage Local SEO Tools To Quickly Clean Up Citations If local SEO  has any relevance to your business (meaning, if you have a brick-and-mortar location and rely on search to drive foot traffic), Whitespark  and Moz Local  are two great tools to help speed up a lot of menial tasks that can otherwise eat up valuable hours of your time. 57. Use Screaming Frog Fixing broken links on your blog or website can be time-consuming. However, it helps to pay attention to them and get them fixed as an ongoing practice, rather than letting them accumulate and having to fix a ton of them all at once. Use Screaming Frog  to quickly crawl your site and identify URLs that return a 404 status code. Back To Table Of Contents 15 Social Media Time Management Strategies 58. Use One Tool To Manage All Your Accounts Manage all your social media accounts with one tool. , Hootsuite, and Buffer  are all valid options for this task. By logging into one dashboard instead of multiple sign-in pages each time you want to schedule social media updates, you can easily save an enormous amount of time. 59. Automate Social Media Publishing Automate (some) of your social media content. You’ll want to continue adding a personal touch to your social media posts, but filling your social queues with pre-scheduled content can help you maintain a consistent presence with less active effort and attention. 60. If Something Isn't Working, Stop Get rid of platforms that aren’t working. Focus more effort on fewer channels. You’ll likely be less stressed and more successful. 61. Use IFTTT To Automate Social Media Tasks Use IFTTT  to automate recurring tasks. It's a cool tool that uses "recipes" to automate processes (and has applications that go way beyond just social media). Here's a good video tutorial on how it works: 62. Use Rapportive To Gather Social Profiles From Emails Get an email from someone and want quick access to their social profiles? Use Rapportive. It's quicker and easier than manually searching for their Twitter handle. 63. Use Tomoson To Find Influencers On Social Media Use Tomoson  to find influencers and brands who might be interested in your product or service. Rather than manually searching for experts on a given topic, it can make finding prospects for this kind of social media outreach quicker and more effective. 64. Avoid Social Media When You're Supposed To Be Doing Something Else Eliminate distractions from your personal social media when you’re working. You’d be surprised how much time you might be wasting checking your Facebook updates or Twitter stream. 65. Respond To Comments, But Keep It Short And Sweet Expedite social media response times. If you don’t have the time or energy to write up a thoughtful response to a social media post, sometimes a simple â€Å"Thanks for reading!† is enough to let someone know you've heard their feedback. 66.  Turn One Idea Into Multiple Posts Try writing a few different versions of a single post. Then, schedule those posts out throughout the week. Now one idea for your post has become three. 67. Use Twitter Lists Use Twitter lists to quickly follow influencers on specific topics. You can either create lists yourself to monitor accounts based on topics or interests, or simply search Twitter for lists on topics you’re interested in and follow them. #TimeSavingTip Use Twitter list to quickly follow influencers and topics without the noise....68. Use Storify Use Storify  to round up tweets and social media posts quickly. 69. Use Social Media Engagement Metrics For Instant Content Feedback Use social media engagement numbers as a rapid-fire real-time indicator of which content is most popular. 70. Use Hashtags Smartly Leverage hashtags to easily increase exposure. Be sure to choose hashtags that directly relate to your brand, blog, or content. This may seem basic, but it's an often overlooked tactic that can help your posts gain more visibility quickly. 71. Write Posts In Bulk Write social media posts in bulk and schedule them out at least a week or two in advance. 72. Use Followerwonk Want to analyze your Twitter performance and find influencers quickly? Try using Followerwonk. It’s free, fast, and easy to use. Back To Table Of Contents 6 Email Marketing Time Management Strategies 73. Use A Real Email Marketing Platform If you don’t have access to a developer who can build you custom email newsletter templates, then use a platform to manage email like MailChimp  or Campaign Monitor  (at , we use Campaign Monitor). They’re easy to use and make email marketing management a lot more efficient than going without them. 74. Resend Past Email Newsletters Instead of writing a whole new email, try taking your last email and sending it to anyone on your list who didn’t open it the first time (be sure to wait about a week first). 75. Use Pop-Up Forms To Build Your Email List Use automated pop-ups on your blog or website to build your email list fast and convert readers into email subscribers. SumoMe's Scroll Box is an  easy to use tool for this task, available in  both free and premium versions. 76. Give Away Free Bonus Content  To Drive Email Signups Use content upgrades to entice more email subscriptions. A content upgrade can be defined as a gated piece of content (like an infographic, ebook, video, course, or something else) that requires readers to exchange their email address in order to access the content upgrade. One piece of content can equal tons of subscribers, making this a highly efficient way to grow your email list. 77. Automate Email Follow-up With Boomerang If you need to automate a lot of messages for one-on-one email outreach, use Boomerang  to follow up on emails. 78. Check Email At Set Times (Instead Of Literally All The Time) When it comes to your own work email, set time aside to check your email rather than checking it every five minutes. If you took our suggestion of using HipChat or Slack for inner-office communication, you’ll probably notice the amount of email hitting your inbox dropping substantially, too. Back To Table Of Contents 3 Content Calendar Time Management  Strategies 79. Use A Content Calendar If you aren’t already, use a content calendar. Any kind of calendar. We’re going to plug ourselves quick here, but using can help save tons of time here. 80. Schedule Content Two Weeks In Advance Keep your calendar full for at least two weeks out into the future. You’ll get more done when you’re not stressed over hitting immediate deadlines. That may mean having to work a little extra hard at first to build up enough content to fill your calendar, but once you've gotten past that initial effort, you'll find yourself freer to strategize and work more efficiently. 81. Consistency Is Key Be consistent when updating your content calendar. Build habits that save time and your calendar  will, in turn, help you save time elsewhere in your workflow. Back To Table Of Contents 3 Analytics And Reporting Time Management Strategies 82. Use Pre-Built Google Analytics Dashboards If you’re not skilled in configuring Google Analytics yourself, get more utility from it faster using pre-built dashboards. That saves you time from having to learn how to configure everything correctly yourself  while making sure your dashboards are designed to be useful. 83. Use SumAll To Gather Social Media Data Use SumAll to automatically generate data-driven social media performance reports (note that as of March 1, 2016, this is a paid-only tool). 84. Set Up Automatic Reporting In Your SEO Platform If you’re using Moz, Raven Tools, or any other content marketing and SEO platform, use it to set up automatic reports delivered to your email. That way, you can provide reports to management quickly without having to build out reports manually. Back To Table Of Contents 17 General Time Management Strategies 85. Track Your Time Time tracking tools like Toggl  work well for this. Or, just use the timer on your phone. Over time, you’ll get a better idea of how much time tasks generally take, and be better able to plan accordingly in the future. 86. Use The Pomodoro Technique Try using the Pomodoro technique  throughout your workday. In short, it’s a productivity method where you work in 25-minute bursts, separated by break periods. 87. Take Timed Breaks Even if you don’t use the Pomodoro technique, taking timed breaks is still highly advisable. Your brain simply can’t fire on all cylinders around the clock. Taking breaks can actually increase your #productivity.88. Use A Password Manager Use a password manager to save time entering passwords or recovering passwords you’ve forgotten. 1Password  and LastPass  are both solid options. 89. Don't Fear Failure Fail fast and move on. Don’t let the fear of failure stop you from trying something new that may work better than what you did yesterday. 90. Don't Waste Time On Things That Aren't Working Likewise, if something isn’t working, either figure out why it’s not working or ditch it and move onto something else. Bias yourself toward action and don’t waste time overanalyzing things. 91. Avoid Multitasking Stop multi-tasking. Studies show you’ll get more done, more quickly if you focus on one task at a time. 92. Use Checklists Create task checklists to keep yourself on track. Wonder what makes checklists such an effective tool for getting things done? Read The Checklist Manifesto. 93. Never Start A Meeting Without A Plan Plan your meetings and set timers. Never go into a meeting without an agenda or a goal that the meeting is intended to help achieve. 94. Only Use Tools That Show Real Benefits Use tools and software services that deliver demonstrable productivity benefits. Ditch any that don’t. That saves time and money all in one fell swoop. 95. Take On Your Toughest Task First Thing In The Morning Do your most dreaded task first thing in the morning, whatever that task may be, to free up mental space to take on the rest of your day. 96. Get Enough Sleep Sleep. You’ll get more done, more quickly if you’re well rested. Working when you’re tired leads to diminishing returns over time. 97. Don't Say Yes To Everything Learn how and when to say no. While it’s often tempting to take on every opportunity and task handed your way, you don’t want to burn yourself out by taking on too much. Be realistic about what you can accomplish with the time you have. Simple but true: Saying yes to everything leads to #burnout. Learn how to #sayno. #productivity98. Leave Enough Time For Small Setbacks Leave a time buffer when estimating time for tasks to account for unforeseen hang-ups. This can help avoid missing deadlines. This is important because missed deadlines have a way of snowballing by pushing out timelines on other projects. 99. Make Time To Plan Set aside time for planning. It takes time, but it also saves time in the long run. 100. Use Friday Afternoons For Routine Maintenance Tasks Plan your least mentally intensive tasks for Friday afternoon when you’re probably drained. That way they won’t distract from more important work but they’ll still get done. Recommended Reading:  What To Do On The Weekend To Increase Your Productivity On Monday 101. Plan Tomorrow, Today Use the end of one day to plan what you’ll do at the start of the next day. You'll likely be feeling drained around the end of your day, which makes it a good time to write up a simple list of priorities for your next morning. You'd be surprised how much time this can save while making optimal use of your energy levels. Back To Table Of Contents That Wraps Up All 101 Marketing Time Management Strategies Developing better habits isn’t always easy, and odds are, it’s going to take a little while before you can start applying the majority of these time management strategies to your content marketing workflows. However, all of these items are things you can start doing today, taking things one small step at a time until you’ve established more efficient and productive ways to work. Are there any tips, tools, or tricks we’ve missed? Sound off in the comments below, and thank you for reading!

Friday, March 6, 2020

The medias role in Watergate essays

The medias role in Watergate essays In the American Democracy it is vital for our right to freedom of press to be put into full throttle. Without the press, the society would be clueless and blind of Washington's dealings and business. The press informs the public, for better or worse, about what really goes on in Washington. But during the Watergate Scandal, the press coverage of the scandal demonstrated some of the best and the worst aspects of the way the American press covers the presidency. Richard Nixon despised the press. From the days when he was Vice President and Governor, he had no trust for the press. Even when he used the press for his advantage to expose, what he believed to be, Communist influences in America, he feared the press. Though Nixon had won the endorsement of many newspapers during the 1960 Presidential Campaign, Nixon still thought ill of the press and believed them to be unfair to him. Nixon became even more bitter in 1962 after he lost the election to be governor of California. Nixon bitterly claimed that they wouldn't have Richard Nixon to "kick around anymore". He had retired from politics but that was short lived as he became president in 1968, but even then, Nixon remained careful of the press, fearful that they would leak and expose secrets. He was so scared that he had tapped prominent Washington reporters and official's telephones that he feared would leak information. Within days after the Watergate break in, there were reason to believe that the burglars had connections with the White House highest powers. Despite the sensational revelations, many of the press lost interest in the story very quickly. Most the press accepted the claim of the White House Press Secretary that the incident was "third-rate burglary". Though the Washington Post covered the story, the Post was not thrilled with the story at first. They assigned ...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

International Finance (The problem with Fair Trade Coffee) Essay

International Finance (The problem with Fair Trade Coffee) - Essay Example Are the advantages liable to encompass a high mass of growers and communities on a worldwide basis? The assignment of deriving answers to these questions is although a long term task, there is also necessity of accomplishing this assignment as soon as possible. Considering the urgency, this paper has been prepared and presented as a move towards finding answers to the above mentioned questions. The barriers to the effective implementation of the fair trade movements all the time act as the reason of the power loss of the entire system. Considering in-depth review of the case of fair trade coffee, it has been observed that the biggest challenge being faced by the fair trade movement is when it does not allow the grower co-operatives to negotiate prices for coffee with the importers from foreign countries when at the same time, the world prices are at high level. The consequence of the situation is that the co-operatives ultimately have to buy coffee at higher prices from the farmers a nd they are bound to sell the same coffee at lower prices to the importers of the foreign countries (Jeff, 2011). Another major challenge of the fair trade movement as identified from the Fair Trade coffee case is that of the lack of knowledge being preserved by the producers of coffee. The reason of the lesser knowledge among producers is primarily the co-operatives’ organization and processes. The producers possess almost zero or minimal knowledge about the fair trade movements because they seldom receive any training from the representatives of the Fair Trade. In certain cases, the producers themselves are the catalysts who worsen the situation of lesser information. This happens through their reluctance towards attending assemblies of the co-operatives and other similar events. As the market of coffee is cyclical, the prices of this commodity fluctuate greatly. With the growth in the rates of conventional coffee, the obligations towards the channels of Fair Trade deterior ate. The Fair Trade Coffee depicts that with this scenario in concern, the producers fail to operate effectively because the difference between the prices cited by the co-operatives and that prevailing in the market decreases (Murray, Raynolds, & Taylor, 2003). The reasons for the losing of power of the successful economic justice models are also due to the facts that prove the models’ ineffectiveness in their operations. The experts have criticized the models’ operations recently with the evidence that a few members of the Fair Trade movement are dispatching their intensions of having large corporations or the companies as the members of the movement. It has also been claimed by the critics that there are even certain companies which have received special facilities from the various agencies. With this evidence, the justice models such as that of the FLO and Fair Trade was enquired of providing unequal treatment to their members and as a consequence they all remained unanswered (Munoz, 2011). The mission of the Fair Trade USA and FLO which is to provide empowerment to both the farmers and the workers across the world through eradicating their poverty has also been criticized by the critics and this can be another probable reason for the loss of power of the economic justice model (Haight, 2011). The criticism has been against the models’ proclamation that it aims to eradicate farmers’ poverty. The creation of the Fair Tr

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

How Good People Make Tough Choices Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

How Good People Make Tough Choices - Essay Example Good people and tough choices are two central themes within this book. The author tries to identify good people by quoting their several daily life examples and their personal and social experiences and their traits as well. At the same time, the author endeavors to explain tough choices. In this regard, it is important to highlight that the author has separately explained â€Å"choices† and â€Å"tough choices† from the prism of ethics. For example, in defining the personality traits of good people, the author has identified them as visionary, having ethical values, courageous enough to face the repercussions of their choices (Kidder 1). Similarly, the author has particularly emphasized on â€Å"choices† as they have broad common sense and they are commonly made by common people. By defining these choices, the author is trying to relate them with the ethical values and leadership qualities as well. Through this association, the author has been successful in maki ng and establishing relationship between ethical choices within the context of ethical values. Here, it is pertinent to highlight that the author has used several daily life examples for supporting the assertions mentioned in the book.   For example, in the first chapter, the author has compared the interplay between the ethics of right versus right in which he has highlighted that two ethically correct positions collide and the related individuals have to make one choice and one compromise; this is a common daily routine situation normally faced by all us.

Monday, January 27, 2020

Atonement as a Liberation for African American Christians

Atonement as a Liberation for African American Christians Shirley Mitchell Can the gospel message of the Atonement have a liberating message for all African-American Christians? Is there really power in the blood? JoAnne Marie Terrell in her exposition explored the meaning of the cross, sources of suffering and sacrifice from the beginning of Christianity through modern times and it is written by an African-American feminist who has suffered both abuse and oppression as a black woman.[1] (J. M. Terrell 1998). JoAnne Marie Terrell, Power in the Blood examines in her exposition the historical exploration of the meaning of the Cross and the impact it has towards the identity and history of African-Americans. From her introduction, she interprets the evil and suffering in which black theology approached the issue of the atonement and the cross. She identifies the various devices such as Negro spirituals, those oppressed in slavery, biblical texts, and other writings which conveyed both positive and negative experiences of African-Americans. She crafted her own observations by beginning with her own remembrance of the cross from slave narratives and other sources bringing them together while linking them with that of the character of Celie in the Color Purple, with the description of God echoing her own: He big and old and gray-bearded and white. He wears white robes and goes barefooted.[2] (Terrell n.d.). The Christians have always placed the great emphasis of Jesus death on the cross, though theologians often are at odds on how to interpret The Crucifixion. Many grapple with the images of torture and abuse, the suffering, and abandonment that Jesus endured while on the cross. Those of us as theologians and who study Christianity often attempt to define Gods nature by explaining Jesus final line, my God, my God, why have you forsaken me, (Matt 27:46, Mk 15:34). One may question, Did God actually forsake Jesus? The divine and human nature of Jesus were never separated. Yet, it is clear, that His fellowship with the Father was temporarily broken as He took the sins of the world upon Himself. Jesus used the words of Psalm 22, which begins with David affirming his conviction that God was in control. With the sins of the world upon him, Jesus felt the agony of separation from his Father. At times, we may feel alone, abandoned or rejected but we should remember Gods promise: Never will I le ave you; never will I forsake you (Heb 13:5). Today our social conditions continue to compel women to accept surrogacy roles. Both African-Americans and other ethnic races continue to labor as domestic workers and are often subjected to modern-day indentured servitude by our white employers. While our black men are being incarcerated at a rate 9.6 times that of white men, leaving the women to take on the role of both mothers and fathers to their children. Convinced by our churches teaching that suffering is a virtue, African-American women remain trapped in sexually, mentally, and physically abusive relationships. They are told in some of our churches to pray for them and faithfully bear their crosses. They identified with Jesus, writes Jacquelyn Grant of black women in slavery, because they believed that Jesus identified with them. As Jesus was persecuted and made to suffer undeservedly, so were they. His suffering culminated in the Crucifixion. But Jesus suffering was not the suffering of a mere human, for Jesus was understood to be God incarnate.[3] (Grant 1993, 281). Since crucifixion was a curse from God (Deut 21:22-23), the act was particularly heinous to Jewish people and what has become so despicable among us has become the instrument of our salvation. Jesus previously instructed his disciples to take up their crosses and follow him (Matt 16:24). Demetrius K. Williams finds redemptive meaning in Jesus crucifixion and how the cross sparked the formation of our religious community with an allegiance to Christ. This fellowship breaks down race, gender, and class distinctions that separate people in the larger society, and it unifies all who proclaim Christ crucified.[4] (Williams 1993). Jesus crucifixion affirmed their faith in their understanding of the saving work of Christ. It depicts all that Jesus endured overcoming evil and set believers free. For Christians, it demonstrates Gods love towards the world and our instructions that we must love God, our neighbors, and our enemies, as well as, the punishment we deserve as sinners which Jesus suffered in our place. Jesus was wounded for our transgressions, crushed for our iniquities; by His wounds, we are healed. (Isaiah 53). From the similarity during slavery, lynched bodies and Jesus body on the cross, to crosses being burned on peoples lawns, the cross has always been a source of tension in black history. Nevertheless, the cross offers our communities faith, hope, and surviving power. By appropriating Jesus Crucifixion with African-American histories in mind and the deep faith in Jesus and the biblical witness in their hearts, black theologians and feminists free the cross for redemption. It symbolizes the suffering a person may have to endure who chooses to place Christ and his kingdom first in their lives and in doing so, they renew its liberating power for other suffering and abused persons living as the least of these in society today. The Crucifixion of Jesus proclaims that love is more powerful than hate and Jesus invites us to put our trust in Him, even in the face of evil, suffering, and oppression. Therein lies the power of Jesus Cross saving power. [1]Terrell, JoAnne Marie. Power in the Blood? The Cross in the African American Experience. Eugene: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 1998. [2]Terrell, Joanne Marie. Strange Fruit: JoAnne Marie Terrells Power in the Blood. http://frjody.com/writings/seminary/strange-fruit-joanne-mari. [3] Grant, Jacquelyn. Womanist Theology: Black Womans Experience as a Source for Doing Theology, with Special Reference to Christology, in Black Theology: A Documentary History, ed. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1993. [4] Williams, Demetrius K. Identifying with the Cross of Christ, in the Passion of the Lord, ed. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1993.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Awareness of k+12 Essay

Rationale â€Å"Change is avalanching down upon our land and most people are utterly unprepared to cope with it†, states Alvin Toffler. In most countries today, changes are happening so fast that we are at times unable to preserve relevant cultural aspects and values. In the field of curriculum, change is and will continue to be, the factor for any educational undertaking. (Bauzon, 2002) In the new century, the educational environment is rapidly changing and the roles and responsibilities of the teacher s become demanding in the most part of the world. In our country today, the curriculum of our educational system has been revised to meet its demands. According to President Benigno S. Aquino, â€Å"We need to add two years to our basic education. Those who can afford pay up to fourteen years of schooling before university. Thus, their children are getting into the best universities and the best jobs after graduation. I want at least 12 years for our public school children to give them an even chance at succeeding† (www. google. com ). According to the K to 12 Deped Primer (2011), â€Å"K-12 means â€Å"Kindergarten and the 12 years of elementary and secondary education. † Kindergarten points to the 5-year old child who undertakes the standardized curriculum for preschoolers. Elementary education refers to 6 years of primary school (Grades 1-6) while secondary education means four years of junior high school (Grades 7-10 or HS Year 1-4). In addition to this, two years are now allotted for senior high school (Grades 11-12 or HS Year 5-6). Furthermore, the short duration of our basic education program puts Filipinos who are interested to either work or study abroad at a disadvantage. This is because other countries see our 10-year program as incomplete, which then, causes Filipino graduates to not be considered as professionals abroad. The first teacher of the children are their parents. They have a great role in the development of the young. They become part of the environment of learning at home. They follow-up the lessons of their children especially in the basic education. They sent their children to school to be taught, to be trained and to gain knowledge. Parents are supporters of the curriculum. They would like to get the best of his/her investment in education. They are willing to pay the cost of educating their child for as long as their children get the best learning or schooling experiences. They aims to have a children that has a bright future and a changed individual who is easily adjusted to his fast changing world. (Bilbao, p. 80) This study finds it important to research about the awareness of the k+12 curriculum in the parents of the grade 7 students. The parents of the Grade 7students ofCantilan National High School, Madrid National High School – Union Annex, and Surigao Del Sur State University Cantilan Laboratory High School are the respondents of this research. The programs offered by the University are on Level 1 and 2 and it is accredited by the AACUP. In as much as the data that will be gathered in this study will be very helpful to the curriculum experts, managers and administrators who play an important role in shaping the school curriculum and who are responsible in the formulation of the philosophy, vision, mission, and objectives. The result of this study could provide the needed information in formulating possible solutions for reactions of the parents of the grade 7 students of the CNHS, MNHS-Union Annex and SDSSU Cantilan Laboratory High School. Conceptual Framework As shown in figure 1, the first box contains all about the k+12 curriculum and level of awareness of the parents of the Grade 7 students about it. The middle box contains the independent variables which are the parents of the Grade 7 students of the CNHS, MNHS-Union Annex, and SDSSU Laboratory High School. The interaction of the independent and dependent variables is now the awareness of k+12 program in the parents of Grade 7. This is shown in box 3, the output of the study. INPUTTHROUGH PUTOUTPUT FIGURE 1. Schematic Diagram of the Research Paradigm Statement of the Problem This study aims to determine the awareness of k+12 curriculum among the parents of grade 7 students. This aims further how the k+12 curriculum affects the strategies of the teachers and what are the adjustment to prioritize. The main problem seeks to answer the following subsidiary problems. 1. What is the socio-demographic profile of the respondents? 1. 1. Age 1. 2. Sex 1. 3. Educational attainment 2. What is the extent of awareness of parents to the k+12 curriculum in terms of the following indicators? 2. 1. Features of the k+12 curriculum 2. 2. Assessment of the k+12 curriculum 2. 3. Advantage/benefits of the k+12 curriculum to the students 3. Is there a significant relationship between the socio-demographic profile of the respondents and the extent of awareness in the K+12 program in terms of : 3. 1. Features of the k+12 curriculum 3. 2. Assessment of the k+12 curriculum 3. 3. Advantage/benefits of the k+12 curriculum to the students Hypothesis: This study will test the null hypotheses at 0. 05 level of significance. Ho: there is no significant relationship between the socio demographic profile of the respondents and the extent of awareness of the k+12 curriculum. Significance Of The Study This study will benefit the following: Parents —The result of this study helps the parents of the grade 7 students to accept the changes in our educational system today and one of these changes is the k+12 program. Future Researchers—The result of this study will serve as their guide and help them to collect new ideas and information’s, if their study is interrelated with this study. The authors wrote simple words in every section of this book for the readers to understand easily. Scope and Limitations of the Study This study will cover the following limitations: Respondents. Parents of Grade 7 students in Cantilan National High School (CNHS), Madrid National High School-Union Annex and (SDSSU) Surigao del Sur State University-Laboratory High School. Location. The venue of the study is the Cantilan National High School (CNHS), Madrid National High School-Union Annex and (SDSSU) Surigao del Sur State University-Laboratory High School. Time Frame. The time frame within which the study will be conducted is during the school year 2012-2013. Definition of Terms Curriculum. Is a plan for what is to be taught in schools. Curriculum studies are a field of inquiry into how schools programs are developed, implemented, and evaluated. K-12 Curriculum. The program aims to uplift the quality of education in the Philippines in order for the graduates to be easily employed. It also aims to meet standards required for professionals who would want to work abroad. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE To give depth and meaning of the study at hand some related literature and studies taken from articles, books, magazines and periodicals, from different studies and papers read which have bearing on the study conducted and discussed. Related Literature Clearly our country’s ability to provide quality education for its people is hinged to its survival as well as its ability to compete in the global market and be a meaningful partner in the world affairs. (Philippine yearbook, 2003). Though our government created ways and means in order to uplift the quality education that we have, but still it is really a dilemma for every Filipino that our educational system is declining. With this, lots of changes went through, and the teachers as well as the learners are the primary concern of this. The gradual change in curriculum is one of the means to eradicate this decline. As Smithers (2003) said that, â€Å"it has been in contention that teachers should play a more pivotal role in all phases of curriculum-making from initial planning through development try-out, installation, evaluation and revision. More and more classroom teachers are being tapped to serve in school curriculum committees and task force. A perplexed teacher once observed that the curriculum is like a maze in his words â€Å"a complex situation involving a multiplicity of considerations that require profound study†. It is our contention that it is need not to be so stripped to its base essentials, curriculum making is surprisingly simple. (Bruner,2002) According To Bauzon (2002), â€Å"the aspirations of any ideals of any society serve as determinants of the educational system. The aspiration rises only to the level of its people’s aspirations. The most essential instrument in nation building which is education distills the goals in the society. In the school setting, each child learns much more than he is taught as part of the curriculum. Not all learning is the result of the planned experiences in the school. The curriculum of the school includes those experiences for which the school accepts responsibility. These curricular experiences are organized and promoted in order to acceptable objectives and needs of children may be responded adequately. They are planned sequentially so that many learners needs social, spiritual, emotional, intellectual and physical will be prepared. The viable curriculum is based on the recognition that maturation factors and experiential background conditions readiness to learn. Thus, the teacher provides new advices prior to the child’s level of development. (Gronlund,2004). Jerome Bruner emphasizes that here must be an emphasis upon reducing a subject to its fundamental ideas or structure. To grasp the structure of a subject, he argues, one must understand the relationship between facts and ideas which constitute the subject. Structure is important in teaching a subject because it permits a â€Å"massive general transfer† of learning. In short, it allows one to â€Å"learn how to learn†. Related Studies The department of education’s k to 12 program is one concrete response to reverse this steady decline and to move toward its goal of long-term educational reform and sustainable economic growth. The central feature of the k to 12 program is the upgrading of the basic education curriculum to ensure that learners acquire the relevant knowledge and skills they will need to become productive members of society. It seeks to introduce relevant skills development courses and special interest subjects that will suit the personality, strengths and career direction of each learner. (http://www. gov. ph/k+12) In the report of EFA(2002),†As early1925, studies have observed the in adequacy of the basic education curriculum. As one of the most well studied reforms, recommendations of either adding or restoring the grade or adding an extra year to basic education have been put forward. According to the different survey of the curriculum: Monroe survey (1925): secondary education did not prepare for life and recommended training in agriculture, commerce, and industry. Prosser survey (1930): recommended to improve phases of vocational education such as 7thgrade shop work, provincial schools, and practical arts training in the regular high schools, home economics, placement work, gardening, and agricultural education. UNESCO mission survey (1949): recommended the restoration of grade. Education act. Of 1953: under section3, mandates thatâ€Å"[t]he primary course shall be composed off our grades (grades I to IV) and the intermediate course of three grades (grade VTOVII). † Swanson Survey (1960):recommendedtherestorationofgrade7. Presidential Commission To Survey Philippine Education (PCSPE) (1970): high priority be given to the implementation of an11-year program; Recommended program consists of 6 years of compulsory elementary education and 5years of secondary education In one study conducted on the influence of standards on thek+12 teaching and student learning, teachers described in this research were actively pursuing alignment between the content they were teaching (at classroom level, we refer to this as â€Å" teaching curriculum† and the content measured by the various state test. (The Freeman Foundation2006). Based on the k-12 educators study tourprograms funded by theFreeman foundation the overseas programs of the Asian Studies Outreach Program (ASOP) is one element of amulti-pronged, statewide approach to introduce Asian studies in every Vermont school and buildthe leadership needed to support this goal. The overseas program for teachers, the equivalent of a three-hour graduate level course, places a heavy emphasis on content relevant to both the travelexperience and teachers’ curriculum. The program aims to: †¢ increase teachers’ awareness/cultural sensitivity and teachers’ comfort level in teaching about Asia through direct experiences with Asian people, history, and culture; †¢ enhance the quality of teachers’ classroom instruction through increased knowledge ofAsia; †¢ encourage curriculum revision to build a sustained cross-discipline presence for Asia in grades K-12; and †¢ build the capacity of teachers to lead the efforts to include Asia in the curriculum. In selecting participants, ASOP considers areas of the state where participation in the overseas program could introduce or strengthen Asian studies. In addition, ASOP looks at the level ofadministrative commitment and the availability of teams of teachers from a school or district. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This study will use the descriptive survey method appropriate for profiling the variables of this research. Research Environment As one of the municipalities of Surigao Del Sur, Cantilan is located in the Northeastern area of Mindanao and part of the CARAGA region. it has a qite large and plain are about 10,575 sq. km. facing the pacific ocean on theeasternpart. almost40,000 people comprises the 17 barangays in which the livelihood is mostly derived from agriculture, aquaculture and income of the professionals . as theoldesttownintheprovince of surigao del sur it is the cradle of all the five municipalities. Being centered in education, Cantilan has a lot of schools to be proud of. Among of this are the Madrid National High School-Union Annex,Surigao Del Sur State University and Cantilan National High School. Although Sdssu-Cantilan concentrate for the tertiary education yet it offers a secondary in which they called as the laboratory high school with its limits to100students as of scoolyear2012-2013. on the other hand,thecantialn national high school offers 3 curriculum the ESEP,SPA,and RBEC with 2000 students as its latest enrollees . as an institution of higher learning ,both the schools are known in uplifting a quality education and promoting the growth and development of the students inconsonance with the national development towards quality education. Fig. 2 presents the map of Surigaodel Sur where Municipality of Cantilan is located. Research Design This is a descriptive evaluative or assessment study appropriate for profiling the variables of research which intends to know the level of awareness among parents of the Grade -7 students under K-12 program of Madrid National High School- Union Annex, Cantilan National High School, and Surigao Del Sur State University- Laboratory High School. The data that to be gathered will be recorded, organized, and interrupted in view of the objectives set in the study. Research Respondent This study is confined to all the parents of grade-7 students in Madrid National High School- Union Annex, Surigao del Sur State University-Laboratory High School and Cantilan National High School in the school year 2012-2013. Table 1. Distribution Of The Respondents School Number of grade 7 parents/guardians Number of respondents MNHS-UA 23 11 SDSSU-Lab. H. S. 24 12 CNHS 40 20 TOTAL 87 43 Research Instruments A self made questionnaire is purposely made for the study. It contains two parts. The first part contains the Profile of the parents. These include the name, age, educational attainment, occupation, and monthly income. The second part contains the different questions with regards to the k+12 program. Research Procedures Gathering of Data. The questionnaires will be given to the parents of the Grade 7 students of Madrid National High School- Union Annex, Cantilan National High School, and Surigao Del Sur State University. Statistical Treatment. The following formulas will be used in this study: 1. Weighted Mean This is used to determine the Socio-Demographic Profile of the parents interms of age, educational attainment and occupation. Likewise, weighted mean is to be applied to determine the acceptability of the k+12 program among the parents of the Grade 7 students of Madrid National High School- Union Annex, Cantilan National High School, and Surigao Del Sur State University. 2. Simple Percentage Computation This is used to determine the percentage of the respondents. 3. Pearson Chi-Square This is used to determine if there is a significant relationship of the respondent’s socio-demographic profile and the extent of awareness of the k+12 curriculum. CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents, analyzes and interprets the data gathered from the questionnaire to the concerned respondents. This chapter shows the significant relationship between the socio-demographic profile of the respondents and the extent of awareness of the k-12 curriculum. Relationship Between The Socio-Demographic Profile Of The Respondents And The Extent Of Awareness Of The K-12 Curriculum This section analyzes the result of the respondents’ socio-demographic profile and the extent of awareness of the k-12 curriculum. TABLE 2:Relationship of Respondent’s Age and Extent of Awareness in Terms of the Features of the K+12 Curriculum Features of the curriculum X2 a. The number of years in the basic education is increased up to 13 years including Kindergarten. 12. 481 b. The students â€Å"will graduate twice† because they will earn two certificates: one for completion of the DepEd subjects at Grade 10 and the other for finishing the technical skills subjects integrated into the curriculum. 14. 336 c. New subjects taken by your student Agrarian Reform, Family Planning, NSTP, Philippine Constitution, Physical Educ. , Population Educ. , Rizal and Taxation. 8. 568 d. There are specializations in Science and Technology, Music and Arts, Agriculture and Fisheries, Sports, Business and Entrepreneurship. 8. 881 e. Opportunity to take courses like Internet and Computing Fundamentals, Technical Drawing, Home Management/ Housekeeping, Cooking/ Food Processing, Electrical Installation and Maintenance, Dress Making/Tailoring, Carpentry, Crop Production, Animal Production and Care giving. 6. 790 f. Mother tongue is used as a medium of instruction for Grades 1 to 3. 7. 830 g. Strong collaboration of CHED, TESDA and DOLE in training the Senior High School students. 6. 567 MEAN 9. 3504 X2; DF= 6 12. 592 The table shows the computed X2 in every features of k-12 curriculum in terms of age. The degrees of freedom is 6 and the mean of the computed X2 is 9. 3504, since the mean computed value is lesser than x2 at 5%, there is no enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, the respondents’ age is independent with the extent of awareness in terms of the features of the k+ 12 curriculum. TABLE 3:Relationship of Respondent’s Age and Extent of Awareness in Terms of the Assessment of the Curriculum The table shows the computed X2 in every parts of the assessment of the curriculum in terms of age. The degrees of freedom is 6 and the mean of computed X2 is 9. 7606, since the mean computed value is lesser than x2 at 5%, there is no enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, the respondents’ age is independent with the extent of awareness in terms of the assessment of the k+ 12 curriculum. TABLE 4:Relationship of Respondent’s Age and Extent of Awareness in Terms of the Advantages/Benefits of the K+12 Curriculum to the Students The table shows the computed X2 in every advantages to the students in terms of age. The degrees of freedom is 6 and the mean of computed X2 is 8. 6699, since the mean computed value is lesser than x2 at 5%, there is no enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, the respondents’ age is independent with the extent of awareness in terms of the advantages/ benefits of the k+ 12 curriculum to the students. TABLE 5: Relationship of respondent’s sex and extent of awareness in terms of the features of the k+12 curriculum Features of the curriculum X2 a. The number of years in the basic education is increased up to 13 years including Kindergarten. 5. 239 b. The students â€Å"will graduate twice† because they will earn two certificates: one for completion of the DepEd subjects at Grade 10 and the other for finishing the technical skills subjects integrated into the curriculum. 4. 143 c. New subjects taken by your student Agrarian Reform, Family Planning, NSTP, Philippine Constitution, Physical Educ. , Population Educ. , Rizal and Taxation. 6. 131 d. There are specializations in Science and Technology, Music and Arts, Agriculture and Fisheries, Sports, Business and Entrepreneurship. 1. 325 e. Opportunity to take courses like Internet and Computing Fundamentals, Technical Drawing, Home Management/ Housekeeping, Cooking/ Food Processing, Electrical Installation and Maintenance, Dress Making/Tailoring, Carpentry, Crop Production, Animal Production and Care giving. 2. 168 f. Mother tongue is used as a medium of instruction for Grades 1 to 3. 3. 503 g. Strong collaboration of CHED, TESDA and DOLE in training the Senior High School students. 1. 946 MEAN 3. 4936 X2; df= 2 5. 991 The table shows the computed X2 in every features of the curriculum in terms of sex. The degrees of freedom is 2 and the mean of computed X2 is 3. 4936, since the mean computed value is lesser than x2 at 5%, there is no enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, the respondents’ sex is independent with the extent of awareness in terms of the features of the k+ 12 curriculum. TABLE 6:Relationship of respondent’s sex and extent of awareness in terms of the assessment of the curriculum Assessment Of The Curriculum X2 a. Focused on the learner’s acquisition of effective communication, information, media and technology, learning and innovations kills, and life and career skills. 0. 157 b. Has balanced assessment program. 5. 454 c. Promotion and retention of the students shall be by subject. 0. 530 d. Honor students shall be drawn from among those who performed at the ADVANCED LEVEL. 0. 293 e. The performance of students shall be described in the report card based on the following levels of proficiency: B, D, AP, P, A not their equivalent numerical values. 3. 345 MEAN 1. 9558 X2; df= 2 5. 991 The table shows the computed X2 in every assessment of the curriculum in terms of sex. The degrees of freedom is 2 and the mean of computed X2 is 1. 9558, since the mean computed value is lesser than x2 at 5%, there is no enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, the respondents’ sex is independent with the extent of awareness in terms of the assessment of the k+ 12 curriculum. TABLE 7:Relationship of respondent’s sex and extent of awareness in terms of the advantages/benefits of the k+12 curriculum to the students The table shows the computed X2 in every advantages to the students in terms of sex. The degrees of freedom is 2 and the mean of the computed X2 is 7. 0027, since the mean computed value is greater than the x2at 5%, there is enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, the respondents’ sex is not independent with the extent of awareness in terms of the advantages/benefits of the k+ 12 curriculum to the students. TABLE 8: Relationship of Respondent’s Educational Attainment and Extent of Awareness in Terms of the Features of the K+12 Curriculum Features of the curriculum X2 a. The number of years in the basic education is increased up to 13 years including Kindergarten. 27. 967 b. The students â€Å"will graduate twice† because they will earn two certificates: one for completion of the DepEd subjects at Grade 10 and the other for finishing the technical skills subjects integrated into the curriculum. 38. 701 c. New subjects taken by your student Agrarian Reform, Family Planning, NSTP, Philippine Constitution, Physical Educ. , Population Educ. , Rizal and Taxation. 26. 768 d. There are specializations in Science and Technology, Music and Arts, Agriculture and Fisheries, Sports, Business and Entrepreneurship. 17. 201 e. Opportunity to take courses like Internet and Computing Fundamentals, Technical Drawing, Home Management/ Housekeeping, Cooking/ Food Processing, Electrical Installation and Maintenance, Dress Making/Tailoring, Carpentry, Crop Production, Animal Production and Care giving. 26. 446 f. Mother tongue is used as a medium of instruction for Grades 1 to 3. 16. 845 g. Strong collaboration of CHED, TESDA and DOLE in training the Senior High School students. 24. 094 MEAN 25. 4317 X2; DF= 8 15. 507 The table shows the computed X2 in every features of the curriculum in terms of educational attainment. The degrees of freedom is 8 and the mean of computed X2 is 25. 4317, since the mean computed value is greater than x2 at 5%, there is enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, the respondents’ educational attainment is not independent with the extent of awareness in terms of the features of the k+ 12 curriculum. TABLE 9:Relationship Of Respondent’s Educational Attainment And Extent Of Awareness In Terms Of The Assessment Of The Curriculum Assessment Of The Curriculum X2 a. Focused on the learner’s acquisition of effective communication, information, media and technology, learning and innovations kills, and life and career skills. 28. 956 b. Has balanced assessment program. 28. 448 c. Promotion and retention of the students shall be by subject. 8. 995 d. Honor students shall be drawn from among those who performed at the ADVANCED LEVEL. 23. 507 e. The performance of students shall be described in the report card based on the following levels of proficiency: B, D, AP, P, A not their equivalent numerical values. 19. 981 MEAN 21. 9774 X2; df= 8 15. 507 The table shows the computed X2 in every assessment in the curriculum in terms of educational attainment. The degrees of freedom is 8 and the mean of computed X2 is 21. 9772, since the mean computed value is greater than x2 at 5%, there is enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, the respondents’ educational attainment is not independent with the extent of awareness in terms of the assessment of the k+ 12 curriculum. TABLE 10: Relationship Of Respondent’s Educational Attainment And Extent Of Awareness In Terms of the Advantages/Benefits Of The K+12 Curriculum To The Students Advantages/Benefits Of The K+12 Curriculum To The Students X2 a. More emotionally mature, socially aware and Pro-active. 18. 995 b. Acquire mastery of basic competencies. 25. 042 c. Be legally employable with potential for better earnings. 21. 290 d. Students will possess competencies and skills relevant to the job market 13. 974 e. Be globally competitive. 20. 517 f. Every graduate of the enhanced K+12 Basic Education program will be empowered to learn through the program that is rooted on sound educational principles and geared towards excellence and the foundations for learning throughout life. 49. 488 g. Students will be able to prepare their own business for their future. 40. 415 h. Senior High School students will be given an opportunity to do OJT (On the Job Training), internship or apprenticeship 23. 504 i. After graduating Senior High School, graduates will be able to work immediately, even before or without seeking college degree because students will have not only a high school diploma needed for further studies, but also 1 or more certificates needed for immediate employment. 24. 652 MEAN 26. 4308 X2; DF= 8 15. 507 The table shows the computed X2 in every advantages to the students in terms of educational attainment. The degrees of freedom is 8 and the mean of computed X2 is 26. 4308, since the mean computed value is greater than x2 at 5%, there is enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, the respondents’ educational attainment is not independent with the extent of awareness in terms of the advantages/benefits of the k+ 12 curriculum to the students. CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION This chapter presents the summary of the entire study that serve as the basis for conclusions and recommendations. This includes the statement of the problem, findings, conclusions and some recommendations of the study. SUMMARY This research study seek to find the level of awareness of the k+12 curriculum among the parents of the grade 7 students in CNHS, SDSSU-H. S LAB. , MNHS-UA. The respondents of the study were the parents of the grade 7 students in CNHS, SDSSU-H. S LAB. , MNHS-UA. The researchers limit their respondents to 50% of the population from each school. The study made use of the survey method which was appropriate for the profiling and gathering of data. Moreover, the data were interpreted using the mean, simple percentage computation and the Pearson chi-squared test. Findings Based on the analysis of the gathered data, the different findings in this research study are summarized as follows: 1. The relationship of respondent’s age and extent of awareness in terms of the features ofthe k+12 curriculum, since the mean computed value which is 9. 3504 lesser than x2 at 5%, there is no enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, the respondents’ age is independent with the extent of awareness in terms of the features of the k+ 12 curriculum. 2. The relationship of respondent’s age and extent of awareness in terms of the assessment of the curriculum, since the mean computed value, 9. 7606, is lesser than x2 at 5%, there is no enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, the respondents’ age is independent with the extent of awareness in terms of the assessment of the k+ 12 curriculum. 3. The relationship of respondent’s age and extent of awareness in terms of the advantages/benefits of the k+12 curriculum to the students, since the mean computed value,8. 6699, is lesser than x2 at 5%, there is no enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, the respondents’ age is independent with the extent of awareness in terms of the advantages/ benefits of the k+ 12 curriculum to the students. 4. The relationship of respondent’s sex and extent of awareness in terms of the features of the k+12 curriculum, since the mean computed value,3. 4936, is lesser than x2 at 5%, there is no enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, the respondents’ sex is independent with the extent of awareness in terms of the features of the k+ 12 curriculum. 5. The relationship of respondent’s sex and extent of awareness in terms of the assessment of the curriculum, since the mean computed value,1. 9558, is lesser than x2at 5%, there is no enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, the respondents’ sex is independent with the extent of awareness in terms of the assessment of the k+ 12 curriculum. 6. The relationship of respondent’s sex and extent of awareness in terms of the advantages/benefits of the k+12 curriculum to the students, since the mean computed value,7. 0027, is greater than the x2at 5%, there is enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, the respondents’ sex is not independent with the extent of awareness in terms of the advantages/benefits of the k+ 12 curriculum to the students. 7. The relationship of respondent’s educational attainment and extent of awareness in terms of the features of the k+12 curriculum, since the mean computed value,25. 4317, is greater than x2 at 5%, there is enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, the respondents’ educational attainment is not independent with the extent of awareness in terms of the features of the k+ 12 curriculum. 8. The relationship of respondent’s educational attainment and extent of awareness in terms of the assessment of the curriculum, since the mean computed value,21. 9774, is greater than x2 at 5%, there is enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, the respondents’ educational attainment is not independent with the extent of awareness in terms of the assessment of the k+ 12 curriculum. 9. The relationship of respondent’s educational attainment and extent of aware

Friday, January 10, 2020

Role of Indian Banks in the Growth of the Indian Economy

{draw:g} {draw:custom-shape} SSUB INTRODUCTION: In the current global order, where the world has become a big village, consumers take a global look at the products and services in terms of price, quality, delivery and after-sale services. This trend has sown the seeds of competition in every sector of economy and banking sector is no exception to this event. Banking, the world over, has been changing at a spectacular pace. This change is due to multifarious factors like the need to be efficient in functions, thirst for becoming finance superpowers than mere banks, growing importance of private banking, the rise in high net worth individuals, etc. the decade of 90s has witnessed a sea change in the way banking is done in India. Technology has made tremendous impact in banking. â€Å"ANYWHERE BANKING† and â€Å"ANYTIME BANKING† have become a reality. Growing integration of economies and the markets around the world have made global banking a reality too. The surge in globalization of finance has also gained momentum with the technology advancements, which have effectively become overcome the national borders in the financial services business. India, as we know, is one of the 104 signatories of Financial Services Agreement (FSA) of 1997. This gives Indian banks an opportunity to expand on a quid pro quo basis. BANKING IN INDIA: Banking in India originated in the last decades of the 18th century. The oldest bank in existence in India is the State Bank of India, a government-owned bank that traces its origins back to June 1806 and that is the largest commercial bank in the country. Central banking is the responsibility of the Reserve Bank of India, which in 1935 formally took over these responsibilities from the then Imperial Bank of India, relegating it to commercial banking functions. After India's independence in 1947, the Reserve Bank was nationalized and given broader powers. In 1969 the government nationalized the 14 largest commercial banks; the government nationalized the six next largest in 1980. Currently, India has 96 scheduled commercial banks (SCBs) – 27 public sector banks (that is with the Government of India holding a stake), 31 private banks (these do not have government stake; they may be publicly listed and traded on stock exchanges) and 38 foreign banks. They have a combined network of over 53,000 branches and 17,000 ATMs. STRUCTURE OF BANKING SYSTEM IN INDIA: The following figure represents the structure of Indian Banking System. {draw:frame} ROLE OF BANKING SECTOR IN THE GROWTH OF INDIAN ECONOMY: Money lending in one form or the other has evolved along with the history of the mankind. Even in the ancient times there are references to the moneylenders. Indian history is also replete with the instances referring to indigenous money lenders involved in the business of money lending by mortgaging the landed property of the borrowers. Towards the beginning of the 20th century, with the onset of modern industry in the country, the need for government regulated banking system was felt. Reserve Bank of India was set up to regulate the formal banking sector in the country. But the growth of modern banking remained slow mainly due to lack of surplus capital in the Indian economic system at that point of time. Modern banking institutions came up only in big cities and industrial centers. The rural areas, representing vast majority of Indian society, remained dependent on the indigenous money lenders for their credit needs. Independence of the country heralded a new era in the growth of modern banking. In 1969, Indian government took a historic decision to nationalize 14 biggest private commercial banks. A few more were nationalized after a couple of years. This resulted in transferring the ownership of these banks to the State and the Reserve Bank of India could then issue directions to these banks to fund the national programs, the rural sector, the plan priorities and the priority sector at differential rate of interest. However, after almost two decades of bank nationalization some new issues became contextual. The service standards of the public sector banks began to decline. Their profitability came down and the efficiency of the staff became suspect. Non-performing assets of these banks began to rise. The wheel of time had turned a full circle by early nineties and the government after the introduction of structural and economic reforms in the financial sector, allowed the setting up of new banks in the private sector. The new generation private banks have now established themselves in the system and have set new standards of service and efficiency. These banks have also given tough but healthy competition to the public sector banks. MODERN DAY ROLE: Banking system and the Financial Institutions play very significant role in the economy. First and foremost is in the form of catering to the need of credit for all the sections of society. The modern economies in the world have developed primarily by making best use of the credit availability in their systems. An efficient banking system must cater to the needs of high end investors by making available high amounts of capital for big projects in the industrial, infrastructure and service sectors. At the same time, the medium and small ventures must also have credit available to them for new investment and expansion of the existing units. Rural sector in a country like India can grow only if cheaper credit is available to the farmers for their short and medium term needs. Credit availability for infrastructure sector is also extremely important. The success of any financial system can be fathomed by finding out the availability of reliable and adequate credit for infrastructure projects. Fortunately, during the past about one decade there has been increased participation of the private sector in infrastructure projects. The banks and the financial institutions also cater to another important need of the society i. . mopping up small savings at reasonable rates with several options. The common man has the option to park his savings under a few alternatives, including the small savings schemes introduced by the government from time to time and in bank deposits in the form of savings accounts, recurring deposits and time deposits. Another option is to invest in the stocks or mutual funds. In addition to the above traditi onal role, the banks and the financial institutions also perform certain new-age functions which could not be thought of a couple of decades ago. The facility of internet banking enables a consumer to access and operate his bank account without actually visiting the bank premises. The facility of ATMs and the credit/debit cards has revolutionized the choices available with the customers. The banks also serve as alternative gateways for making payments on account of income tax and online payment of various bills like the telephone, electricity and tax. The bank customers can also invest their funds in various stocks or mutual funds straight from their bank accounts. In the modern day economy, where people have no time to ake these payments by standing in queue, the service provided by the banks is commendable. While the commercial banks cater to the banking needs of the people in the cities and towns, there is another category of banks that looks after the credit and banking needs of the people living in the rural areas, particularly the farmers. Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) have been sponsored by many commercial banks in severa l States. These banks, along with the cooperative banks, take care of the farmer-specific needs of credit and other banking facilities. FUTURE: Till a few years ago, the government largely patronized the small savings schemes in which not only the interest rates were higher, but the income tax rebates and incentives were also in plenty. The bank deposits, on the other hand, did not entail such benefits. As a result, the small savings were the first choice of the investors. But for the last few years the trend has been reversed. The small savings, the bank deposits and the mutual funds have been brought at par for the purpose of incentives under the income tax. Moreover, the interest rates in the small savings schemes are no longer higher than those offered by the banks. Banks today are free to determine their interest rates within the given limits prescribed by the RBI. It is now easier for the banks to open new branches. But the banking sector reforms are still not complete. A lot more is required to be done to revamp the public sector banks. Mergers and amalgamation is the next measure on the agenda of the government. The government is also preparing to disinvest some of its equity from the PSU banks. The option of allowing foreign direct investment beyond 50 per cent in the Indian banking sector has also been under consideration. Banks and financial institutions have played major role in the economic development of the country and most of the credit- related schemes of the government to uplift the poor and the under-privileged sections have been implemented through the banking sector. CONCLUSION: The Indian banking system is financially stable and resilient to the shocks that may arise due to higher non-performing assets (NPAs) and the global economic crisis, according to RBI. Following the financial crisis, new deposits have gravitated towards public sector banks. According to RBI's ‘Quarterly Statistics on Deposits and Credit of Scheduled Commercial Banks: September 2009', nationalized banks, as a group, accounted for 50. 5 per cent of the aggregate deposits, while State Bank of India (SBI) and its associates accounted for 23. 8 per cent. The share of other scheduled commercial banks, foreign banks and regional rural banks in aggregate deposits were 17. 8 per cent, 5. 6 per cent and 3. 0 per cent, respectively. With respect to gross bank credit also, nationalized banks hold the highest share of 50. per cent in the total bank credit, with SBI and its associates at 23. 7 per cent and other scheduled commercial banks at 17. 8 per cent. Foreign banks and regional rural banks had a share of 5. 5 per cent and 2. 5 per cent respectively in the total bank credit. NRI fund inflows increased since April 2009 and touched US$ 45. 5 billion on July 2009, as per the RBI's February bulletin. Most of this has come through Foreign Currency Non-resident (FCNR) accounts and Non-resident External Rupee Accounts. India's foreign exchange reserves rose to US$ 284. 6 billion as on January 8, 2010, according to the RBI's February bulletin. The State Bank of India (SBI) has posted a net profit of US$ 1. 56 billion for the nine months ended December 2009, up 14. 43 per cent from US$ 175. 4 million posted in the nine months ended December 2008. Amongst the private banks, Axis Bank's net profit surged by 32 per cent to US$ 115. 4 million on 21. 2 per cent rise in total income to US$ 852. 16 million in the second quarter of 2009-10, over the corresponding period last year. HDFC Bank has posted a 32 per cent rise in its net profit at US$ 175. million for the quarter ended December 31, 2009 over the figure of US$ 128. 05 million for the same quarter in the previous year. Government Initiatives: In its platinum jubilee year, the RBI, the central bank of the country, in a notification issued on June 25, 2009, said that banks should link more bran ches to the National Electronic Clearing Service (NECS). In the Third Quarter Review of Monetary Policy for 2009-10, the RBI observed that the Indian economy showed a degree of resilience as it recorded a better-than-expected growth of 7. 9 per cent during the second quarter of 2009-10. In its Third Quarter Review of Monetary Policy for 2009-10, the RBI hiked the Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) by 75 basis points (bps) to 5. 75 per cent, while keeping repo and reverse repo rates unchanged. According to the RBI, the stance of monetary policy for the remaining period of 2009-10 will be to: Anchor inflation expectations and keep a vigil on inflation trends and respond swiftly through policy adjustments, Actively manage liquidity to ensure credit demands of productive sectors are met adequately, Maintain an interest rate environment consistent with financial stability and price stability. Exchange rate used: 1 USD = 46. 29 INR (as on January 2010) 1 USD = 46. 66 INR (as on December 2009) Thus it can be concluded by saying that the role of the banks has been important, but it is going to be even more important in the future.